First Form of Ziyarat | Second form Shaikh Mufeed
Recitation at the entrance /Izn Dukhool
You may then enter the shrine by preceding your right foot (to the left), saying the following words:
When you reach the gate of the dome, you may stop there and ask permission of entrance by saying the following words:
While entering, you may repeat the following statement four times:
You may then stop in front of the holy tomb, making the kiblah direction to be between your shoulders, and say the following words:
You may then turn to the side of the Imam’s head and say the following words:
You may then offer the two-unit prayer of ziyarah, reciting Surah Yasin (No. 36) –after Surah al-Fatihah in the first unit- and Surah al-Rahman (No. 55) –after Surah al-Fatihah in the second unit. You may also recite any> Surah instead. Then, you may pray Almighty Allah for whatever you need.
Shaykh al-Mufid, al-Shahid, and Muhammad ibn al-Mashhadi have said the following: If you intend to visit Imam al-Kazim (`a) in Baghdad, you may first bathe yourself with the intention of visiting him, direct to the holy shrine, stop at its gate, ask permission of entrance, and then enter there while saying the following words:
You may then walk until you stop in front of the grave of Musa ibn Ja`far (`a). When you stop there, you may say the following words:
You may then throw yourself on the grave, kiss it, place both your cheeks on it, turn to the side of the Imam’s head, stop there, and say the following words:
You may then kiss the grave and offer a two-unit prayer. You may then offer any prayer you like. After that, you may prostrate yourself and say the following supplicaroty words:
You may then put your right cheek on the ground and say the following :
You may then put your left cheek on the ground and say the following words:
You may then return to the position of prostration and repeat the following word one hundred times:
You may then raise your head from prostration and pray for whatever you wish and whomever you wish.
Traditions have borne great rewards for those who visit these two Infallible Imams (`a). According to many reports, to visit Imam Musa ibn Ja`far al-Kazim (`a) is as same as visiting the Holy Prophet (s).According to another tradition, he who visits Imam al-Kazim (`a) is as if he has visited the Holy Prophet (s) and Imam `Ali Amir al-Mu'minin (`a). According to a third tradition, to visit Imam al-Kazim (`a) is as same as visiting Imam al-Husayn (`a).According to a fourth tradition, he who visits Imam al-Kazim (`a) will have Paradise as reward.
The master scholar, Muhammad ibn Shahr'ashub, has quoted in his book of al-Manaqib al-Khatib al-Baghdadi as saying, in his book of Tarikh Baghdad, that `Ali ibn Khallal used to say, “Whenever I faced a major problem, I would direct to [the tomb of] Musa ibn Ja`far and beg Allah in the name of him to solve it. Hence, Almighty Allah would always relieve me of that problem.”
`Ali ibn Khallal has also told this story: In Baghdad, people saw a woman running fast. “Where are you going?” they asked. “I am going to Musa ibn Ja`far, because my son has been imprisoned.” Mocking at her, a man of the Hanbali School said to her, “Your son will die in the prison!” The woman answered, “I then beseech Allah in the name of the one who was killed in the prison (i.e. Imam al-Kazim) to show me His omnipotence.” So, her son was immediately released and the son of the mocking man was arrested and punished for his felony.
Two forms of salawaat ;1)At the shrine and 2) Short Salwaat Friday
1.In his book of Misbah al-Za'ir, the sublime Sayyid Ibn Tawus, while referring to some forms of ziyarah of Imam al-Kazim (`a), has mentioned a form of invoking blessings on him, which contains references to some of the Imam’s virtues, merits, method of worship, and misfortunes. Hence, a visitor of this Imam (`a) is advised not to miss the reward of this form of invocation of blessings, which is as follows:
2.Salawaat Upon Imam Musa ibn Jafar al-Kadhimthe Tranquil One (peace be upon him) Within the recommended rites on Fridays, Shaykh al-Tusi, in his book of Misbah al-Mutahajjid, has mentioned the following from Imam Hasan Askari (peace be upon him):
Ppsx Ppt 2
Salat of Imam
Merits of Ziyarat and All Ziyarat
Another ziarat audio
Shrine of Son -short documentary
There are two types of common forms of ziyarah. The first is said to each Imam independently.
The sublime Shaykh Ja`far ibn Muhammad ibn Qawlawayh al-Qummi has reported in his book of Kamil al-Ziyarah that Imam `Ali al-Naqi (al-Hadi) instructed to say the following form of ziyarah for each of the two Imams (i.e. al-Kazim and al-Jawad) separately:
Actually, this form of ziyarah is highly considered; it has been also reported by al-Saduq, al-Kulayni, and al-Tusi with very little difference. The following are some forms of ziyarah addressed to the two Imams (`a) altogether.
Al-Mufid, al-Shahid, and Muhammad ibn al-Mashhadi have said the following:
When visiting the two Imams (`a) together, you may say the following words after you stop at the holy tomb:
You may then kiss the holy dust (of their graves) and put your right cheek on it. You may then turn to the side of the Imam’s head and say the following words:
You may then offer a two-unit prayer for each Imam and then pray Almighty Allah for anything you wish.
Short Forms of Ziyarah?
The age in which these short forms of ziyarah were issued was an age of terrible persecution (against the holy Imams); therefore, they used to practice taqiyyah (self-protection by showing pious dissimulation). The Holy Imams (`a) therefore taught their followers such short forms of ziyarah so as to protect them against the tyrannical rulers of these ages.
If a visitor wishes to say a long form of ziyarah, he may say the comprehensive (jami`ah) forms of ziyarah, which will be cited in this book. These comprehensive forms are in fact the best forms of ziyarah addressed to the Holy Imams (`a). The first of these forms (namely; al-Ziyarah al-Jami`ah al-Kabirah –the Major Comprehensive Form of Ziyarah) is best advisable for the visitors of Imam al-Kazim (`a), because its report shows some peculiarity to this holy Imam.
In this connection, it seems suitable to mention the story of Hajj `Ali al-Baghdadi, the delighted, righteous, elite, and pious man whose story has been mentioned by our mentor in his two books of Jannat al-Ma'wa and al-Najm al-Thaqib. In the latter book, he writes, “Even if this book does not comprise anything except this authentically and accurately reported story, which contains abundant advantages and took place in this age, the book will still be highly valuable and precious.” After some introductory words, the author starts narrating the story: Hajj `Ali, may Allah support him, narrated the following: An amount of eighty Tumans (Persian currency) that I was liable to pay as khumus (one-fifth) tax amassed on me. I therefore traveled to the holy city of al-Najaf to defray twenty Tumans of them to His Eminence Shaykh Murtada the epitome of true guidance and piety, may Allah raise his status. I defrayed other twenty Tumans to His Eminence Shaykh Muhammad Husayn al-Mujtahid al-Kazimi and other twenty Tumans to His Eminence Shaykh Muhammad al-Shuruqi. So, only twenty Tumans remained with me, which I had the intention to pay to Shaykh Muhammad Hasan ªl-Yasin al-Kazimi, may Allah support him, when I would return from al-Najaf. As soon as I arrived in Baghdad, I wished to pay the rest of the khumus tax that I was liable to pay. So, I went directly to al-Kazimiyyah on that day, which was Thursday, and visited the two great Imams; al-Kazim and al-Jawad. I then came to His Eminence Shaykh Muhammad Hasan, may Allah save him, and gave him a part of that amount of twenty Tumans. I also promised him that I would defray the remainder, by giving it to the beneficiaries respectively, as soon as I would sell some goods of mine. I then prepared myself to leave al-Kazimiyyah after I had refused the Shaykh’s insistent invitation to stay with him. My excuse was that I had to pay the employees in my textile factory their wages, since I had already decided to pay the employees their weekly wages on Thursday afternoons. I therefore took my way to Baghdad. After I covered a third of the way, I saw a handsome-looking sayyid turning his way towards me while he was directing towards al-Kazimiyyah. He approached me, greeted me, and stretched his hand to shake hands with me. He also embraced and welcomed me, saying, “Welcome!” He then embraced me to his chest and we exchanged kisses. Turbaned with a vividly green turban and having a big black mole on the face, the man stopped and asked me, “Hajj `Ali, where are you heading for?”
“I have visited al-Kazimayn and I am now on my way to Baghdad,” I answered.
“Go back to al-Kazimayn,” the sayyid ordered. “It is Friday night.”
“I cannot go back,” I said.
“Yes, you can,” the sayyid said, “so that I will witness for your being one of the loyalists to my grandfather the Commander of the Faithful and to us. The shaykh will also witness for you, because the All-exalted Lord has said, ‘And call in to witness two witnesses.’”
This was an insinuation to what I have already hoped from the shaykh to write for me a piece of paper so that I would place it in my shroud in which he would witness for me that I am one of the loyalists to the Ahl al-Bayt. I therefore asked him, “How do you know me and how can you witness for me?”
The sayyid answered, “Is it possible for one to ignore those who have carried out their duty towards him?”
“What kind of duty do you mean?” I asked.
“I mean the financial duty that you have defrayed to my deputy,” he answered.
“Who is your deputy?” I asked.
“Shaykh Muhammad Hasan,” he answered.
“Is he your deputy?” I asked.
“He is,” he answered. “So is Sayyid Muhammad.”
As a matter of fact, I had not known this man before but he called me by name; therefore, I thought that we had probably known each other earlier. I also said to myself that the man might have wanted me to give him a part of the khumus duty. I therefore wished to give him something of the Imam’s share of that duty. I thus said to him, “Sayyid, I am liable to pay something of your financial due. I had referred to His Eminence Shaykh Muhammad Hasan to allow me to pay this remaining amount to you.” The sayyid smiled in my face and said, “Yes, you have defrayed a portion of our due to our deputies in the holy city of al-Najaf.”
“Has that portion which I have paid been accepted?” I asked.
“Yes, it has been accepted,” he answered.
I then noticed that this sayyid had been referring to the master scholars as his deputies. This was hard for me to consent. However, I returned to inadvertence of what was going between him and me. The sayyid then asked me to go back with him to visit his grandfather. I therefore complied with his desire and returned with him. All the way back to al-Kazimiyyah, my left hand was grasping the sayyid’s right hand. While we were walking, I found to our right side a river of pure water. I also found trees of lemon, bitter orange, grapes, pomegranate, and other fruits overshadowing us and all of these trees were fruitful although it was not the season of their fruiting. When I asked the sayyid about this, he answered, “The river and the trees accompany every one of our loyalists when he visits our grandfather and us.”
I then said, “I have a question that I would like to put before you.”
“Yes,” the sayyid said. “Go ahead.”
“One day,” I said, “I joined the class of Shaykh `Abd al-Razzaq, one of the teachers, and could hear him saying, ‘Even if one dedicates his entire lifetime to observing fasting in days and spending the whole nights with acts of worship, and goes on hajj for forty times, and goes on `umrah for forty times, and dies while he is standing between Mount al-Safa and Mount al-Marwah, but he was not loyalist to the Commander of the Faithful, he will have no reward at all for all that.’ Is this accurate?”
“Yes, it is,” answered the sayyid. “Such one will have no reward at all.”
I then asked him about one of my relatives whether he is loyalist to the Commander of the Faithful or not. The sayyid answered, “Yes, he is as well as all those who relate to you.”
I then said, “May I ask you another question, sayyid?”
“Yes, you may,” he answered.
I said, “The orators in the consolation ceremonies of Imam al-Husayn (`a) have narrated that a man came to Sulayman al-A`mash and asked him about visiting the tomb of the Chief of Martyrs (i.e. Imam al-Husayn), but Sulayman answered that it was an unfounded innovative. The man then saw in sleep a hodaw between the sky and the earth carrying Lady Fatimah al-Zahra' and Lady Khadijah al-Kubra. When he asked where these two ladies were going, he was informed that they were going to visit al-Husayn (`a) at that very night, which was Friday night. He also saw pieces of paper falling on the earth from that hodaw with the following inscription: This is security against Hellfire for those who visit al-Husayn (`a) at Friday nights. This is security against Hellfire on the Resurrection Day. Is this tradition authentic?”
The sayyid answered, “Yes, it is completely authentic.”
“Sayyid,” I asked, “Is it true that whoever visits al-Husayn (`a) on Friday nights will be secured?”
“Yes, it is,” he answered, his eyes shed tears, and he wept.
“May I ask another question, sayyid?” I asked.
“Yes, you may,” he answered.
In the year 1269, we were on our way for visiting Imam al-Rida (`a). In the city of Durud, we met an Arab man who hosted us. When we asked him about the loyalty to Imam al-Rida (`a), he answered, ‘Paradise is the loyalty to him!’ He then added, ‘This is the fifteenth day on which I have been feeding on the food of Imam al-Rida (`a). How dare then Munkar and Nakir approach me in my grave? My flesh and bone have grown on the food of Imam al-Rida (`a) in his guest house.’ Is it true that Imam al-Rida (`a) will come to this man in his grave to save him from Munkar and Nakir?”
“Yes, it is true,” the sayyid answered. “I swear it by Allah; my grandfather guarantees (salvation from torment).”
I then said, “Sayyid, there is another short question that I would like to put before you, if you permit.”
“You may ask,” he answered.
“As for my visit to Imam al-Rida (`a), has it been acceptable?” I asked. “It is acceptable, Allah willing,” he answered.
“May I ask another question?” I said.
“Yes, you may,” he answered.
“Has the visit of Hajj Muhammad Husayn Bazzaz Bashi, the son of the late Hajj Ahmad Bazzaz Bashi been accepted? I accompanied him on my way to the shrine of Imam al-Rida (`a); we therefore distributed expenditure between us.” The sayyid answered, “The visit of the righteous servant is accepted.”
“May I ask another question?” I said.
“Yes, you may ask, in the name of Allah,” he answered.
I thus asked, “Has the visit of so-and-so from Baghdad been accepted? He was with us on our way to Khurasan.”
However, the sayyid kept silent. He did not answer this question.
“May I ask another question?” I said.
“Yes, you may ask, in the name of Allah” he answered.
“Have you heard my previous question? Has the visit of that man been accepted?” I asked. The sayyid did not answer this question either.
The man about whom I asked the sayyid was one of the rich people of Baghdad. Throughout our journey to Imam al-Rida (`a), he and his friends used to play and amuse themselves profligately. The man was the killer of his mother. We then reached an open road facing the city of al-Kazimiyyah and surrounded by orchards from both sides. A side of this road, which lies to the right of those coming from Baghdad, had been owned by some orphan sayyids but the ruling authorities usurped it from them to make it part of the public way. Hence, the religious, pious people of al-Kazimiyyah used to refrain from walking in this side of the road. However, my companion did not refrain from walking in that side; I therefore said to him, “Sir, this place is owned by some orphan sayyids and it is thus improper to use it.” He answered, “It is owned by my grandfather, the Commander of the Faithful, his descendants, and our sons; therefore, it is permissible to our loyalists to use it.”
Near this place, there was to the right side an orchard owned by a man named Hajj Mirza Hadi, one of the rich Persians who lived in Baghdad. Hence, I said, “Sayyid, is it true that the land of this orchard is originally owned by Imam Musa ibn Ja`far (`a)?”
“What is your business with this issue?” the sayyid replied and refused to answer my question. We then reached a rivulet on the Tigris used for irrigating the farms and orchards. This rivulet crossed that road making it ramify into two streets; namely, the sultanic street and the street of the sayyids. My companion headed for the street of the sayyids after he had refused my invitation to take the other street. He thus said to me, “Let us take this street.” A few steps ahead, we found ourselves in the courtyard of the holy shrine of Imam al-Kazim (`a) near the shoes store without having passed by any market or alley. So, we entered the passage from the eastern side of the gate that is known as Bab al-Murad, which is to the side of the Imam’s feet. My companion did not stop there to ask permission of entrance of the holy portico. He then stopped at the gate of the holy shrine addressing at me with the following words: “You may now say the ziyarah form.”
“I cannot read,” I said.
“May I recite the ziyarah form for you?” he suggested.
“Yes, you may,” I answered.
So, he said, “O Allah, may I enter? Peace be upon you, O Allah’s Messenger. Peace be upon you, O Commander of the Faithful...” He went on greeting the Holy Imams by this form. When he reached to Imam al-`Askari (`a), he said, “Peace be upon you, O Abu-Muhammad al-Hasan al-`Askari.”
He then said to me, “Do you know the Imam of your age?”
“How come that I do not known him?” I said.
“So, greet him,” he asked.
I said, “Peace be upon you, O Allah’s Argument, Patron of the Age, and son of al-Hasan.” He replied, “Peace and Allah’s mercy and blessings be upon you, too.” We then entered the holy shrine, threw ourselves on the holy tomb, and kissed it. He then said to me, “You may now say the ziyarah form.”
“I cannot read,” I said.
“May I recite it for you?” he asked.
“Yes, you may,” I answered.
“Which form of ziyarah do you wish to say?” He asked.
“You may say the most favorite of them,” I answered.
“Ziyarah of Aminullah is the most favorite,” he remarked.
He then went on visiting the Imams (`a) with this form of ziyarah, saying, “Peace be upon both of you, O Allah’s trustees in His land and His arguments against His servants...” up to the end of this form. At that moment, the lanterns of the holy shrine were lit, but I noticed that these lanterns and candles did not add any light to that very holy place, which seemed to have been shone with sunlight and these candles seemed as if they were lit in daylight. Despite all these extraordinary matters, I was completely diverted that I could not pay attention to these things. When he accomplished the ziyarah formula, he turned from the side of the Imam’s feet to the back of the holy tomb and stopped at the eastern side, “Will you visit my grandfather al-Husayn?” he asked.
“Yes, I will. This is Friday night,” I answered.
He therefore visited Imam al-Husayn (`a) with the ziyarah form that is known as Ziyarah Warith. At that moment, the caller to the Maghrib (sunset) Prayer finished from declaring the adhan (call to prayer). My companion then said to me, “Perform the prayer and join the congregation.” So, he came to the mosque that is situated behind the holy tomb where a congregational prayer was held. He stood alone to the right of the imam (leader of prayer) while I could find myself a place in the first line thus joining the congregation of the prayer. When I accomplished my prayer, I could not find my companion. So, I went out of the mosque and searched for him the entire shrine, but uselessly. I had the intention to give him a little amount of money and host him that night.
At that moment, I recovered my attention and began to think about the personality of that sayyid who had accompanied me to this place. Hence, the extraordinary events and miracles that I observed with the sayyid turned in my head. I thus remembered how I had surrendered to him totally and returned to al-Kazimiyyah forgetting the important matter that I had to do in Baghdad due to which I should not have come back to this city. The man called me by name although I had never seen him before. He also used the word, “the loyalists to us...” as well as other expressions such as, “I will witness for you.” He showed me the flowing river and the trees, which were fruitful in a time other than their seasons. All these clear-cut indications, as well as many others that I saw from this sayyid, prove undoubtedly that this sayyid was Imam al-Mahdi, especially that he asked me whether I recognize the Imam of my age; and when I answered in the affirmative, he asked me to greet him. When I did, he smiled and responded to my greeting.
However, I came to the custodian of the shoes store and asked him about my companion. He told me that he had just left. He then asked me whether he was actually my companion. I answered, “Yes, he was.” I then came to the house where I resided as guest and spent the night there.
The next morning, I headed for His Eminence Shaykh Muhammad Hasan and inform him of the whole story. He put his hand on his mouth and warned me against divulging this story. He added, “May Allah lead you to more success.” I therefore used to keep it secret and refrain from letting anybody know about it. After one month of that incident, I met a reverent sayyid who approached and asked me, “What happened to you?” He was hinting at the incident, but I denied the matter, saying, “Nothing happened to me.” He repeated the same question and I repeated the same answer with more emphasis. He then hid himself and I could not see him after that.
Visiting and Offering Prayers in Masjid Buratha
Situated on the road between al-Kazimiyyah and Baghdad, Buratha Mosque (Masjid Buratha) is one of the most famous and blessed mosques. Although the visitors of the holy shrines pass by this mosque, they are unfortunately unaware of this holy place and the great standing and merit that it enjoys.
In his book of Mu`jam al-Buldan, al-Hamawi, one of the historians of the fifth century, says: Buratha is a district situated in the Karkh side of Baghdad to the south of Bab Mihwal. It had one mosque in which the Shi`ah used to offer prayers. However, this mosque was demolished to the ground. Before the reign of al-Radi billah the `Abbasid ruler, a group of the Shi`ah used to meet in this mosque and revile at the Sahabah (the companions of the Prophet)!! So, al-Radi attacked this mosque, arrested those whom he found there, put them in prison, and demolished the mosque to the ground. The Shi`ah informed the Emir-in-chief of Baghdad of this matter. So, he ordered to rebuild, expand, and strengthen the building of this mosque. He also inscribed the name of al-Radi on the front part of the mosque. Prayers were performed and offered in this mosque up to the year 450 or after that. However, this mosque was deserted up to now. Before the construction of Baghdad, Buratha was a village by which (Imam) `Ali is claimed to have passed by on his way to fighting the Haruriyyah (i.e. al-Khawarij) in the famous battle of al-Nahrawan. It is also claimed that he offered a prayer in that mosque and entered a public bath in that village.
To this village, Abu-Shu`ayb al-Burathi is ascribed. A famous worshipper, this man was the first to reside in Buratha in a cottage, which he used for doing acts of worship. One day, a daughter of rich and worldly people who was brought up in palaces passed by him and liked his lifestyle. So, she became fond of him and offered him to accept her as a servant. He accepted on condition that she would deprive herself of her appearance, leave her previous lifestyle, and dress herself with the costume of ascetics so that she would be fit enough to imitate his lifestyle. She therefore dispossessed herself of everything, put on the costume of ascetics, and came to him. He married her, but when she entered his cottage, she noticed a leaf of a tree on which he would sit to prevent him from dew. She said, “I will not live with you before you take this leaf out, because I heard you saying, ‘The earth says to the son of Adam (i.e. human being): You set up a screen between you and me; but in the morrow, you will find yourself in my interior.’” So, Abu-Shu`ayb threw out that leaf and his wife remained with him for years sharing him in the best acts of worship. They both kept on this manner until they passed away.
Excellencies of Masjid Buratha
In my book of Hadiyyat al-Za'ir, I have written a few lines on the characteristics of Masjid Buratha. I have said that this mosque, as inferred from traditions, has many excellencies each one of which, if enjoyed by any other mosque, is sufficient to make one prepare oneself and cover long distances to visit it, seeking the pleasure of Almighty Allah through praying and supplicating Him therein.
First Excellency: Almighty Allah has decided that no army reside at this mosque except armies commanded by a Prophet or a Prophet’s successor. Second Excellency: Masjid Buratha was the house of Virgin Mary (`a).
Third Excellency: It was the residence of Prophet Jesus (`a).
Fourth Excellency: The spring that pour out for Virgin Mary (`a) is found in that mosque.
Fifth Excellency: Imam `Ali the Commander of the Faithful (`a) showed that spring by way of miracle.
Sixth Excellency: In that place, there is a white, blessed rock on which Virgin Mary (`a) put Prophet Jesus (`a) down from her shoulder.
Seventh Excellency: By way of miracle too, Imam `Ali the Commander of the Faithful (`a) showed that rock and set it up to the kiblah direction and then offered a prayer behind it.
Eighth Excellency: Imam `Ali (`a) and his two son, Imam al-Hasan the Divinely well-chosen and Imam al-Husayn the chief of martyrs (`a), offered prayers in this mosque.
Ninth Excellency: Imam `Ali the Commander of the Faithful (`a) resided in this mosque for four days.
Tenth Excellency: All Prophets, especially Prophet Abraham (`a) the Friend of the All-beneficent Lord, offered prayers in this mosque.
Eleventh Excellency: This mosque contains the grave of a Prophet, most probably Prophet Joshua. On the word of the Shaykh (may Allah have mercy upon him), the tomb of Prophet Joshua is in the yard opposite to Masjid Buratha.
Twelfth Excellency: It was the place where the sun was recoursed for Imam `Ali the Commander of the Faithful (`a).
The Visitors’ Inattention to Masjid Buratha
Unfortunately and strangely, the majority of visitors of the holy shrines in Iraq have been inattentive to visiting this holy mosque despite its sublime status and merits and its being the place where Divine signs and miracles of Imam `Ali (`a) were shown. Actually, this mosque is not situated in an isolated place where it is difficult to reach; rather, it is situated on the way that visitors take frequently on their way to the holy shrines. Perhaps, one of one thousand visitors may visit this place. It also happened that when a visitor comes to this mosque seeking the great reward of Almighty Allah that is decided for its visitors and finds its gate closed in his face unless he pays some money, he (the visitor) may be annoyed to pay, thus depriving himself of the great reward of the Lord. On the other hand, such visitor may pay much money for visiting the city of Baghdad and the edifices of the tyrants there or pay much more money for purchasing unnecessary means of living and dealing with the Jews of Baghdad to purchase their ill-omened and filthy goods, which have unfortunately been regarded as perfective parts of the journeys of the majority of visitors.
It is Allah only Whose help is sought.