MUHARRUM & SAFAR (Mafatih ul Jinan)

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CHAPTER SEVEN     MUHARRAM       

The month of Muharram is the month of sadness for the Ahl al-Bayt (`a) and their followers. In this respect, Imam al-Ri¤¡ (`a) is reported to have said, “With the beginning of Muharram, my father (`a) would never smile at all. He would be dominated by depression for ten days. The tenth of this month would be the day of his misfortune, sadness, and weeping. He used to say that on this day Imam al-husayn (`a) was slain.”

The First Night of Muharram

Sayyid Ibn ±¡w£s, in Iqb¡l al-A`m¡l, has mentioned that a number of prayers should be advisably offered at this night:

First Prayer: A one hundred unit prayer with S£rahs al-F¡tihah and al-Tawh¢d.

Second Prayer: A two unit prayer at the first of which S£rahs al-F¡tihah and al-An`¡m (No. 6) are recited and at the second unit S£rahs al-F¡tihah and Y¡s¢n (No. 36).

Third Prayer: A two unit prayer at each of which S£rah al-F¡tihah is recited once and S£rah al-Tawh¢d is repeated eleven times is offered.

The Holy Prophet (¥) is reported to have said that whoever offers this prayer at this night and observes fasting the next day, which is the first day in the new year, the new year will be wholly good for him, and he will be saved throughout the year, and if he dies, he will be allowed Paradise.

Sayyid Ibn ±¡w£s has also mentioned a lengthy  prayer to be said at the sight of the new moon of Muharram.

The First Day of Muharram

Being the first day in the new year, there are two acts that are advisably practiced on the first of Muharram:

First: It is recommended to observe fasting on this day. Rayy¡n ibn Shab¢b has reported that Imam al-Ri¤¡ (`a) said, “Just as He responded to the prayer of Prophet Zachariah, Almighty Allah shall respond the prayer of one who observes fasting on this day and prays Him.”

Second: Imam al-Ri¤¡ (`a) is reported to have said that the Holy Prophet (¥), on the first of Muharram, used to offer a two unit prayer. When he finished, he would raise his hands towards the heavens and repeat the following  prayer three times:

اَللَّهُمَّ انْتَ ٱلإِلٰهُ ٱلْقَدِيمُ

all¡humma anta al-il¡hu alqad¢mu

O Allah, You are the Eternal God

وَهٰذِهِ سَنَةٌ جَدِيدَةٌ

wa h¡dhih¢ sanatun jad¢datun

and this is a new year;

فَاسْالُكَ فِيهَا ٱلْعِصْمَةَ مِنَ ٱلشَّيْطَانِ

fa-as'aluka f¢h¡ al`i¥mata mina alshshay§¡ni

I therefore request Your safety from Satan,

وَٱلْقُوَّةَ عَلَىٰ هٰذِهِ ٱلنَّفْسِ ٱلامَّارَةِ بِٱلسُّوءِ

walquwwata `al¡ h¡dhih¢ alnnafsi al-amm¡rati bilss£'i

control over my self, which is inclined to sinning,

وَٱلاِشْتِغَالَ بِمَا يُقَرِّبُنِي إِلَيْكَ يَا كَرِيمُ

walishtigh¡la bim¡ yuqarribun¢ ilayka y¡ kar¢mu

engagement in all that which draws me near You, O All-generous!

يَا ذَا ٱلْجَلاَلِ وَٱلإِكْرَامِ

dh¡ aljal¡li wal-ikr¡mi

O Lord of majesty and honor!

يَا عِمَادَ مَنْ لاَ عِمَادَ لَهُ

y¡ `im¡da man l¡ `im¡da lah£

O Supporter of him who has no supporter!

يَا ذَخِيرَةَ مَنْ لا ذَخِيرَةَ لَهُ

dhakh¢rata man l¡ dhakh¢rata lah£

O Provider of him who has no provisions!

يَا حِرْزَ مَنْ لاَ حِرْزَ لَهُ

hirza man l¡ hirza lah£

O Shelter of him who has no shelter!

يَا غِيَاثَ مَنْ لاَ غِيَاثَ لَهُ

ghiy¡tha man l¡ ghiy¡tha lah£

O He who comes to help him who has no hope of help!

يَا سَنَدَ مَنْ لاَ سَنَدَ لَهُ

sanada man l¡ sanada lah£

O Reliance for him who has no one to lean upon!

يَا كَنْزَ مَنْ لاَ كَنْزَ لَهُ

kanza man l¡ kanza lah£

O Treasure of him who has nothing in the purse!

يَا حَسَنَ ٱلْبَلاَءِ

hasana albal¡'i

O He who knows well how to put to test and trial!

يَا عَظِيمَ ٱلرَّجَاءِ

`a¨¢ma alrraj¡'i

O Ultimate Hope!

يَا عِزَّ ٱلضُّعَفَاءِ

`izza al¤¤u`af¡'i

O Strength of the weak!

يَا مُنْقِذَ ٱلْغَرْقَىٰ

munqidha algharq¡

O Rescuer of the drowning!

يَا مُنْجِيَ ٱلْهَلْكَىٰ

munjiya alhalk¡

O He who saves from destruction!

يَا مُنْعِمُ يَا مُجْمِلُ

mun`imu y¡ mujmilu

O All-benefactor! O All-munificent!

يَا مُفْضِلُ يَا مُحْسِنُ

muf¤ilu y¡ muhsinu

O All-favorer! O All-benevolent!

انْتَ ٱلَّذِي سَجَدَ لَكَ سَوَادُ ٱللَّيْلِ وَنُورُ ٱلنَّهَارِ

anta alladh¢ sajada laka saw¡du allayli wa n£ru alnnah¡ri

You are He before Whom prostrate in adoration the blackness of the night and the brightness of the day,

وَضَوْءُ ٱلْقَمَرِ وَشُعَاعُ ٱلشَّمْسِ

wa ¤aw'u alqamari wa shu`¡`u alshshamsi

the moonlight, the sunlight,

وَدَوِيُّ ٱلْمَاءِ وَحَفِيفُ ٱلشَّجَرِ

wa dawiyyu alm¡'i wa haf¢fu alshshajari

the ripple of the water, and the rustling of the trees!

يَا اللَّهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَكَ

all¡hu l¡ shar¢ka laka

O Allah! There is no associate with You!

اَللَّهُمَّ ٱجْعَلْنَا خَيْراً مِمَّا يَظُنُّونَ

all¡humma ij`aln¡ khayran mimm¡ ya¨unn£na

O Allah! (Please do) cause us to be better than what they think of us!

وَٱغْفِرْ لَنَا مَا لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ

waghfir lan¡ ya`lam£na

Forgive us that which they do not know!

وَلاَ تُؤَاخِذْنَا بِمَا يَقُولُونَ

wa l¡ tu'¡khidhn¡ bim¡ yaq£l£na

Do not blame us for what they say!

حَسْبِيَ ٱللَّهُ لاَ إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ

hasbiya all¡hu l¡ il¡ha ill¡ huwa

Sufficient is Allah (for me). There is no god save Him,

عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ وَهُوَ رَبُّ ٱلْعَرْشِ ٱلْعَظِيمِ

`alayhi tawakkaltu wa huwa rabbu al`arshi al`a¨¢mi

On Him do I rely, and He is the Lord of the Great Throne.

آمَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِنْ عِنْدِ رَبِّنَا

¡mann¡ bih¢ kullun min `indi rabbin¡

We believe in it! It is all from our Lord!

وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلاَّ اوْلُوٱ ٱلالْبَابِ

wa m¡ yadhdhakkaru ill¡ ul£ al-alb¡bi

None do mind except those having understanding.

رَبَّنَا لاَ تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا

rabban¡ tuzigh qul£ban¡ ba`da idh hadaytan¡

Our Lord, make not our hearts deviate after You have guided us aright,

وَهَبْ لَنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ رَحْمَةً إِنَّكَ انْتَ ٱلْوَهَّابُ

wa hab lan¡ min ladunka rahmatan innaka anta alwahh¡bu

and grant us mercy from You; surely, You are the most liberal Giver.

Shaykh al-±£s¢ says: It is recommended to observe fasting on the first nine days of Muharram. On the tenth of Muharram, it is recommended to abstain from eating and drinking up to afternoon. After that, one may eat a little of the soil of Imam al-husayn’s tomb (turbat al-husayn; soil taken from the area around the holy tomb of Imam al-husayn).

Sayyid Ibn ±¡w£s has mentioned the merits of observing fasting during the whole month of Muharram adding that such a deed protects against committing any sin.

The Third of Muharram

On this day, Prophet Joseph (`a) was freed from his prison. Hence, if one observes fasting on this day, Almighty Allah will make easy any difficulty he may face and will relieve any trouble that may face him. According to a had¢th reported from the Holy Prophet (¥), Almighty Allah will respond to the prayer of him who observes fasting on this day.

The Ninth of Muharram

The ninth of Muharram is called T¡s£`¡’([1]). Imam al-S¡diq (`a) is reported to have said, “On the ninth of Muharram, Imam al-husayn, along with his companions, was besieged in Karbal¡' when the Syrian horsemen surrounded him leaving for him but a narrow area. The son of Marj¡nah (i.e. `Ubaydull¡h ibn Ziy¡d) and `Umar ibn Sa`d were delighted due to the great numbers of the horsemen who participated in that encounter against Imam al-husayn (`a). Thus, the enemy became sure that no supporter would join the army of Imam al-husayn (`a) and the people of Iraq, in particular, would not back him.” Imam al-S¡diq (`a) then added, “May I sacrifice my father for the weak and the stranger (i.e. Imam al-husayn).”

The tenth night of Muharram;  The Ashura Night

Sayyid Ibn ±¡w£s, in Iqb¡l al-A`m¡l, has mentioned a number of prayers and a big number of prayers that are advisably said and offered at this tenth night of Muharram. He has also cited the big rewards of saying and offering these supplications and prayers. For instance, it is recommended to offer a one hundred unit prayer with S£rah al-F¡tihah once and S£rah al-Tawh¢d three times. After accomplishment, the doxological statements are repeated seventy times:

All glory be to Allah,

subh¡na all¡hi

سُبْحَانَ ٱللَّهِ

all praise be to Allah,

walhamdu lill¡hi

وَٱلْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ

there is no god save Allah,

wa l¡ il¡ha ill¡ all¡hu

وَلاَ إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ ٱللَّهُ

Allah is the Greatest,

wall¡hu akbaru

وَٱللَّهُ اكْبَرُ

and there is neither might nor power save with Allah, the All-high the All-great.

wa l¡ hawla wa l¡ quwwata ill¡ bill¡hi al`aliyyi al`a¨¢mi

وَلاَ حَوْلَ وَلاَ قُوَّةَ إِلاَّ بِٱللَّهِ ٱلْعَلِيِّ ٱلْعَظِيمِ

According to another narration, one should implore for Almighty Allah’s forgiveness after the previously mentioned statements.

It is also recommended to offer a four unit prayer at the last of this night, reciting S£rah al-F¡tihah once and repeating ªyah al-Kurs¢ and S£rahs al-Tawh¢d, al-Falaq, al-N¡s ten times each. After accomplishment, S£rah al-Tawh¢d is repeated one hundred times.

It is also recommended to offer a four unit prayer with S£rah al-F¡tihah once and S£rah al-Tawh¢d fifty times. Matching the prayer of Imam `Al¢ Am¢r al-Mu'min¢n (`a), which brings about a tremendous reward, Sayyid Ibn ±¡w£s says after citing this prayer, “When you finish the fourth units, you may mention Almighty Allah, invoke blessings upon the Holy Prophet and his Household, and curse their enemies as many times as possible.

As regarding the reward of spending this whole night with acts of worship, it has been narrated that one who does so shall be considered having worshipped Almighty Allah with the worship of all the angels. Furthermore, to practice acts of worship at this night is equal to seventy-year worship. Moreover, as for one who succeeds to visit the tomb of Imam al-husayn (`a) at this night and spends the whole night there up to morning, Almighty Allah shall resurrect him, on the Judgment Day, spotted with the blood of Imam al-husayn (`a) in the group of those who were martyred with him.


 

The Tenth of Muharram; The Day of `Ashura’

On this day, Imam al-husayn (`a) was martyred. It is indeed the day of the calamitous misfortune and the day of grief for the Holy Imams (`a) and their adherents. Thus, the Sh¢`ah are required to stop earning any worldly benefit, stop storing anything in their houses, and devote themselves to weeping and mourning the misfortunes of Imam al-husayn (`a). They are thus required to hold consolation ceremonies in the same way as they do for their dead sons and relatives. They are also required to visit the holy tomb of Imam al-husayn (`a) with the famous form of Ziy¡rah (Ziy¡rat `ªsh£r¡’) that will be later on cited in this book. They are also required to invoke curse upon the enemies and slayers of Imam al-husayn (`a) and to express sympathy to each other, saying,

اعْظَمَ ٱللَّهُ اجُورَنَا بِمُصَابِنَا بِٱلْحُسَيْنِ عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلاَمُ

a`¨ama all¡hu uj£ran¡ bimu¥¡bin¡ bilhusayni `alayhi alssal¡mu

May Allah double up our rewards on account of our sorrow for (the martyrdom of) al-Husayn (`a)

وَجَعَلَنَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ مِنَ ٱلطَّالِبِينَ بِثَارِهِ

wa ja`alan¡ wa iyy¡kum min al§§¡lib¢na bitha'rih¢

and may He include you and us with those who shall take revenge upon his killers

مَعَ وَلِيِّهِ ٱلإِمَامِ ٱلْمَهْدِيِّ مِنَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلسَّلاَمُ

ma`a waliyyih¢ al-im¡mi almahdiyyi min ¡li muhammadin `alayhimu alssal¡mu

with his blood-claimer; Imam al-Mahdi, who belongs to the Household of Muhammad, peace be upon them all.

The adherents (Sh¢`ah) of Imam al-husayn (`a) should confer the martyrdom of their Imam and should weep for him. It is narrated that when Prophet Moses (`a) was ordered to meet the Scholar, namely al-Kha¤ir (`a),([2]) the first matter they discussed was the misfortune that the Household of Prophet Muhammad (`a) would face. They therefore wept heavily for these misfortunes.

Ibn `Abb¡s is reported to have said, “When I accompanied Imam `Al¢ (`a) in Dh¢-Q¡r, he took out a paper comprising the dictations of the Holy Prophet (¥) and handwritten by Imam `Al¢ (`a) himself. He read some segments of that paper and I heard. It contained the story of Imam al-husayn’s martyrdom with full details of the way he would be killed, the person who would kill him, those who would support him, and those who would be martyred with him. Imam `Al¢ (`a) then wept heavily and caused me to weep.”

There is not enough space in this book to mention a part of the story of Imam al-husayn’s martyrdom; therefore, the complete story can be seen in the books specified for this respect. These books are called al-maqtal.

At any rate, if one offers water to people on this day at the holy tomb of Imam al-husayn (`a), his reward will be similar to the reward of one who offered water to the companions of Imam al-husayn (`a) at Karbal¡'. A great reward is also recorded for one who repeats S£rah al-Tawh¢d one thousand times on this day. It is narrated that Almighty Allah shall have a merciful look at one who repeats this S£rah one thousand times on this day.

Sayyid Ibn ±¡w£s has mentioned a  prayer similar to Du`¡' al-`Ashar¡t to be said on this day. More specifically, this  prayer seems to be the same as Du`¡' al-`Ashar¡t but according to another narration.

Shaykh al-±£s¢ has mentioned that `Abdull¡h ibn Sin¡n reported from Imam al-S¡diq (`a) a four unit prayer and a  prayer to be offered and said at the first hours of this day; but on account of briefness, they will not be cited in this book. They, however, can be seen in the book of Z¡d al-Ma`¡d.

The adherents of Imam al-husayn (`a) are required not to eat or drink anything on this day, but not in the intention of ritual fasting, and to break this abstention from food and drink with a meal that is usually offered to the unfortunate people, such as yoghurt, milk, or the like meals; and that should be at the last hour of this day after the afternoon time. In other words, they should avoid having rich or delicious meals on this day, for it is a day of misfortune. They are also required to put on clean dresses and to unfasten the buttons and raise their sleeves just like the unfortunate people.

Forgeries of the enemies of Imam al-Husayn

In Z¡d al-Ma`¡d, `All¡mah al-Majlis¢ says that it is preferable not to observe fasting on the ninth and tenth of Muharram because the Umayyads used to observe fasting on these two days in order to express delight for and to gloat over the martyrdom of Imam al-husayn (`a). Having seen a good omen in the killing of Imam al-husayn (`a), the Umayyads and their fans fabricated many lies against the Holy Prophet (¥) and falsely ascribed to him that he mentioned many merits to be the reward of those who would observe fasting on these two days. On the other hand, the Holy Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt (`a) are reported to have warned against observing fasting on these two days in general and on the tenth of Muhammad, the Day of `ªsh£r¡’, in particular.

The Umayyads—may Allah curse them—used to store up their annual nutriment in their houses on the tenth of Muharram; accordingly, Imam al-Ri¤¡ (`a) is reported to have said, “If one refrains from arranging for any worldly benefit on the tenth of Muharram, Almighty Allah will grant him all his needs for this world and the world to come. If one considers the tenth of Muharram to be the day of his misfortune, sadness, and weeping, Almighty Allah will make the Resurrection Day the day of his delight and happiness; and he will be delighted by us in Paradise. If one considers the tenth of Muharram to be a blessed day and he thus stores up any annual nutriment on that day, Almighty Allah will not bless that which he stored up and will add him to the gang of Yaz¢d, `Ubaydull¡h ibn Ziy¡d, and `Umar ibn Sa`d—may Allah curse them all.”

In conclusion, it is required to suspend any worldly activity on this day and to devote oneself to weeping, mourning the martyrdom of Imam al-husayn (`a), recalling his misfortunes, and ordering one’s family members to hold a consolation ceremony in the same way as one may hold for his dearest people. It is also required to abstain from eating and drinking up to the last hour of the day at which one may break the abstention with a drink of water at least, without intending ritual fasting, since to observe fasting on this day is discommended except in cases of obligatory fasting, such as vow fasting and the like. It is also required not to store up anything in the houses, not to laugh, not to entertain oneself, and not to play. It is recommended, on this day, to invoke Almighty Allah to lay curse on the slayers of Imam al-husayn (`a) one thousand times by saying following statement:

O Allah, (please do) curse the slayers of al-Husayn, peace be upon him.

all¡humma il`an qatalata alhusayni `alayhi alssal¡mu

اللَّهُمَّ ٱلْعَنْ قَتَلَةَ ٱلْحُسَيْنِ عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلاَمُ

The summary of the aforementioned worthy essay of `All¡mah al-Majlis¢ is that the reports that are ascribed to the Holy Prophet (¥) concerning the merits of the tenth of Muharram, the Day of `ªsh£r¡’, are all in all fabricated. This topic has been discussed at length by the author of Shif¡’ al-Sud£r([3]) at explaining the famous Ziy¡rat `ªsh£r¡’ and, precisely, the statement that reads, “O Allah, verily, the descendants of Umayyah saw a good omen in this day... etc.”

The summary of the author’s explanation is as follows: The Umayyads used to regard this day as good omen and they thus used to do many things on it.

(1) They betook as custom on this day storing up the annual nutriment considering such to achieve happiness, good livelihood, and luxury up to the next year. In order to deny this bad habit, the Holy Imams (`a) warned against it in many narrations.

(2) They considered the tenth of Muharram a feast day on which they would commit to the manners of celebration, such as conferring upon the family members with whatever they need, procuring new clothes, having one’s mustache cut, trimming the nails, and shaking hands with each other as well as other norms.

(3) They and their fans have been observing fasting on the tenth of Muharram after they have fabricated numerous traditions entailing the significance of observing fasting on this day.

(4) They and their fans have declared that it is recommended to supplicate Almighty Allah on this day. In order to confirm this forgery, they have invented many merits for this day, included them with fabricated supplications, and taught them to the miscreants of the nation so that they would confuse people and make the matter ambiguous for them. The pro-Umayyad orators used to declare before people that a good event occurred to each Prophet on this day, such as that the fire that Nimrod the tyrannical ruler provoked in order to throw Prophet Abraham (`a) there was extinguished on the tenth of Muharram! Pharaoh who chased Prophet Moses (`a) was drowned on the tenth of Muharram! Prophet Jesus was saved from crucifixion on the tenth of Muharram!([4])

Supporting this, Shaykh al-Sad£q has reported that Jibillah al-Makkiyyah said that she heard Maytham al-Tamm¡r—may Allah sanctify his soul—saying, “By Allah I swear, this nation will kill the grandson of their Prophet on the tenth of Muharram. The enemies of Allah will betake that day as blessed day. This shall inevitably take place, because it has been already cited in the eternal knowledge of Almighty Allah. I knew these facts from my master and the commander of the believers (namely, Imam `Al¢ ibn Ab¢-±¡lib) (`a).”

Jibillah (the reporter) then said that she asked Maytham, “How come that the people will betake the day on which al-husayn (`a) will be slain as blessed day?”

As he wept, Maytham answered, “They will fabricate traditions and will falsely claim that Almighty Allah accepted the repentance of Prophet Adam on the tenth of Muharram. The truth about this is that Almighty Allah accepted the repentance of Prophet Adam (`a) in Dhi’l-hijjah. They will falsely claim that Almighty Allah saved Prophet Jonah from the fish that had swallowed him on the tenth of Muharram. The truth about this is that the event was in Dhi’l-Qa`dah. They will falsely claim that the Ark of Prophet Noah rested on Mount Judi on the tenth of Muharram. The truth about this is that the Ark rested on the tenth of Dhi’l-hijjah. They will falsely claim that Almighty Allah split the river for Prophet Moses to cross on the tenth of Muharram. The truth about this is that the event occurred in Rab¢` al-Awwal... etc.”

This narration of Maytham al-Tamm¡r has, openly and plainly, confirmed that such traditions were invented and fabricated against the Holy Infallibles (`a). It is also one of the signs indicating the true Prophethood of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (`a) and the true Divinely commissioned leadership of the Holy Imams (`a). Finally, it acts as one of the proofs on the veracity and honesty of Sh¢`ism. In this narration, Imam `Al¢ (`a) undoubtedly predicted that which we have been experiencing and witnessing, which is the fabrications and the forgery of lies against the Holy Infallibles (`a).
 

Despite all that, the most surprising thing is to notice that some people contrive a   prayer comprising the aforementioned lies and some unskilled and inexpert writers add such a fabricated supplication to their books that take their way to the publics who will then recite it, although it is surely forbidden to believe in such a false supplication, because it is fabricated. Beginning with statements of praise and glorification of Almighty Allah, this false supplication comprises statements such as “O He Who accepted the repentance of Adam on the Day of `ªsh£r¡’! O He Who raised Idr¢s to the heavens on the Day of `ªsh£r¡’! O He Who made the Ark of Noah rest on Mount Judi on the Day of `ªsh£r¡’! O He Who saved Abraham from fire on the Day of `ªsh£r¡'... etc.”

Undoubtedly, this supplication was invented by the N¡¥ib¢s (or Naw¡¥ib)([5]) of al-Mad¢nah, the Khaw¡rij , or their likes who imitated the Umayyads in their wrongdoings against the Household of the Holy Prophet.


 

Devotional Acts on the Day of Aashura

At the last hours of the Day of `ªsh£r¡', it is necessary to bring to mind the situation of Imam al-husayn’s harem at those hours when they were taken as captives in Karbal¡' while they were unimaginably depressed and unfortunate that they could do nothing but weeping. No author can ever describe the actual manner of Imam al-husayn’s harem, daughters, and children at these hours since the misfortunes that they had to encounter had never stricken any human being on this earth.

Referring to this meaning, a poet says,

فَاجِعَةٌ إِنْ اَرَدْتُ اَكْتُبُهَا

It is a calamity indeed! If I try to write it down

مُجْمَلَةً ذِكْرَةً لِمُدِّكِرِ

In whole, so as to remain an example,

جَرَتْ دُمُوعِي فَحَالَ حَامِلُهَا

My tears will flow and thus block the way

مَا بَيْنَ لَحْظِ الْجُفُونِ وَالزُّبُرِ

Between my eyes and the papers

وَقَالَ قَلْبِي بُقْيا عَلَيَّ فَلاَ

And my heart will beg me to spare its life

وَاللهِ مَا قَدْ طُبِعْتُ مِنْ حَجَرِ

For it is not created from stone (to bear that)

بَكَتْ لَهَا الاَرْضُ وَالسَّماءُ وَمَا

Wept for that disaster both the earth and the skies

بَيْنَهُما فِي مِدَامِعٍ حُمُرِ

And whatever is between them in bleeding tears

 

After that, it is recommended to stand up and address and offer condolences to the Holy Prophet, Imam `Al¢, Lady F¡§imah al-Zahr¡', Imam al-hasan, and the Holy Imams from the offspring of Imam al-husayn—the chief of martyrs—on these astounding misfortunes with passionate heart and teary eyes. Then, it is recommended to address them with the following form of Ziy¡rah:

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ آدَمَ صِفْوَةِ ٱللَّهِ

alssal¡mu `alayka y¡ w¡ritha ¡dama ¥ifwati all¡hi

Peace be on you, O inheritor of Adam, the select of Allah!

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ نُوحٍ نَبِيِّ ٱللَّهِ

alssal¡mu `alayka y¡ w¡ritha n£hin nabiyyi all¡hi

Peace be on you, O inheritor of Noah, the prophet of Allah!

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ إِبْرَاهيمَ خَليلِ ٱللَّهِ

alssal¡mu `alayka y¡ w¡ritha ibr¡h¢ma khal¢li all¡hi

Peace be on you, O inheritor of Abraham, the intimate friend of Allah!

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ مُوسَىٰ كَلِيمِ ٱللَّهِ

alssal¡mu `alayka y¡ w¡ritha m£s¡ kal¢mi all¡hi

Peace be on you, O inheritor of Moses, who received direct communication from Allah!

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ عِيسَىٰ رُوحِ ٱللَّهِ

alssal¡mu `alayka y¡ w¡ritha `¢s¡ r£hi all¡hi

Peace be on you, O inheritor of Jesus, the Spirit of Allah!

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ مُحَمَّدٍ حَبِيبِ ٱللَّهِ

alssal¡mu `alayka y¡ w¡ritha muhammadin hab¢bi all¡hi

Peace be on you, O inheritor of Muhammad, the most beloved by Allah!

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ عَلِيٍّ امِيرِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنينَ وَلِيِّ اللّهِ

alssal¡mu `alayka y¡ w¡ritha `aliyyin am¢ri almu'min¢na waliyyi all¡hi

Peace be on you, O inheritor of `Al¢, the Commander of the Believers and the intimate servant of Allah!

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ ٱلْحَسَنِ ٱلشَّهيدِ سِبْطِ رَسُولِ ٱللَّهِ

alssal¡mu `alayka y¡ w¡ritha alhasani alshshah¢di sib§i ras£li all¡hi

Peace be on you, O inheritor of al-hasan, the martyr and grandson of Allah’s Messenger!

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا بْنَ رَسُولِ ٱللَّهِ

alssal¡mu `alayka yabna ras£li all¡hi

Peace be on you, O son of Allah’s Messenger!

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا بْنَ ٱلْبَشِيرِ ٱلنَّذِيرِ

alssal¡mu `alayka yabna albash¢ri alnnadh¢ri

Peace be on you, O son of the bringer of glad tidings and the warner

وَٱبْنَ سَيِّدِ ٱلْوَصِيِّينَ

wabna sayyidi alwa¥iyy¢na

and son of the chief of the prophets’ successors!

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا بْنَ فَاطِمَةَ سَيِّدَةِ نِسَاءِ ٱلْعَالَمِينَ

alssal¡mu `alayka yabna f¡§imata sayyidati nis¡‘i al`¡lam¢na

Peace be on you, O son of F¡§imah, the doyenne of the women of the world!

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابَا عَبْدِ ٱللَّهِ

alssal¡mu `alayka y¡ ab¡ `abdill¡hi

Peace be on you, O Ab£-`Abdull¡h!

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يا خِيَرَةَ ٱللَّهِ وَٱبْنَ خِيَرَتِهِ

alssal¡mu `alayka y¡ khiyarata all¡hi wabna khiyaratih¢

Peace be on you, O select of Allah and the son of His select ones!

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يا ثَارَ ٱللَّهِ وَٱبْنَ ثَارِهِ

alssal¡mu `alayka y¡ th¡ra all¡hi wabna th¡rih¢

Peace be on you, O revenge of Allah and the son of His revenge!

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ ايُّهَا ٱلْوِتْرُ ٱلْمَوْتُورُ

alssal¡mu `alayka ayyuh¡ alwitru almawt£ru

Peace be on you, O unique (in suffering tribulations) and the oppressed!

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ ايُّهَا ٱلإِمَامُ ٱلْهَادِي ٱلزَّكِيُّ

alssal¡mu `alayka ayyuh¡ al-im¡mu alh¡d¢ alzzakiyyu

Peace be on you, O guide, pure leader!

وَعَلىٰ ارْوَاحٍ حَلَّتْ بِفِنَائِكَ وَاقَامَتْ فِي جِوَارِكَ

wa `al¡ arw¡hin hallat bifin¡'ika wa aq¡mat f¢ jiw¡rika

and on the souls of those who presented themselves in your camp, resided in your vicinity,

وَوَفَدَتْ مَعَ زُوَّارِكَ

wa wafadat ma`a zuww¡rika

and came with the visitors of you.

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ مِنِّي مَا بَقيتُ وَبَقِيَ ٱللَّيْلُ وَٱلنَّهَارُ

alssal¡mu `alayka minn¢ m¡ baq¢tu wa baqiya allaylu walnnah¡ru

(Incessant) peace be upon you, from me, as long as I am alive and as long as there are day and night.

فَلَقَدْ عَظُمَتْ بِكَ ٱلرَّزِيَّةُ

falaqad `a¨umat bika alrraziyyatu

Verily, astounding has been the calamity for us

وَجَلَّ ٱلْمُصَابُ فِي ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَٱلْمُسْلِمِينَ

wa jalla almu¥¡bu f¢ almu'min¢na walmuslim¢na

and unbearable has been the adversity for the believers, Muslims,

وَفِي اهْلِ ٱلسَّمَاوَاتِ اجْمَعِينَ

wa f¢ ahli alssam¡w¡ti ajma`¢na

for all the inhabitants of the heavens,

وَفِي سُكَّانِ ٱلارَضِينَ

wa f¢ sukk¡ni al-ara¤¢na

and for the inhabitants of the layers of the earth.

فَإِنَّا لِلَّهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ

fa'inn¡ lill¡hi wa inn¡ ilayhi r¡ji`£na

So, we are Allah’s and verily unto Him we return.

وَصَلَوَاتُ ٱللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ وَتَحِيَّاتُهُ عَلَيْكَ

wa ¥alaw¡tu all¡hi wa barak¡tuh£ wa tahiyy¡tuh£ `alayka

And Allah’s peace, blessings, and benedictions be upon you,

وَعَلَىٰ آبَائِكَ ٱلطَّاهِرِينَ ٱلطَّيِّبِينَ ٱلْمُنْتَجَبِينَ

wa `al¡ ¡b¡'ika al§§¡hir¢na al§§ayyib¢na almuntajab¢na

upon your forefathers; the pure, the pious, and the elite,

وَعَلىٰ ذَرَارِيهِمُ ٱلْهُدَاةِ ٱلْمَهْدِيِّينَ

wa `al¡ dhar¡r¢himu alhudati almahdiyy¢na

and upon their offspring; the guides and well-guided.

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا مَوْلايَ وَعَلَيْهِمْ

alssal¡mu `alayka y¡ mawl¡ya wa `alayhim

Peace be upon you O my master, upon them,

وَعَلَىٰ رُوحِكَ وَعَلَىٰ ارْوَاحِهِمْ

wa `al¡ r£hika wa `al¡ arw¡hihim

upon your soul, upon their souls,

وَعَلَىٰ تُرْبَتِكَ وَعَلَىٰ تُرْبَتِهِمْ

wa `al¡ turbatika wa `al¡ turbatihim

upon the soil in which you are buried, and upon the soil in which they are buried.

اَللَّهُمَّ لَقِّهِمْ رَحْمَةً وَرِضْوَاناً

all¡humma laqqihim rahmatan wa ri¤w¡nan

O Allah, (please do) shed over them mercy, pleasure (of You),

وَرَوْحاً وَرَيْحَاناً

wa rawhan wa rayh¡nan

happiness, and bounty.

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا مَوْلاَيَ يَا ابَا عَبْدِ ٱللَّهِ

alssal¡mu `alayka y¡ mawl¡ya y¡ ab¡ `abdill¡hi

Peace be upon you, my master Aba-`Abdullah;

يَا بْنَ خَاتَمِ ٱلنَّبِيِّينَ

yabna kh¡tami alnnabiyy¢na

O Son of the Seal of the Prophets,

وَيَا بْنَ سَيِّدِ ٱلْوَصِيِّينَ

wa yabna sayyidi alwa¥iyy¢na

son of the Chief of the Prophets’ successors,

وَيَا بْنَ سَيِّدَةِ نِسَاءِ ٱلْعَالَمينَ

wa yabna sayyidati nis¡'i al`¡lam¢na

and son of the doyenne of the women of the world.

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا شَهِيدُ يَا بْنَ ٱلشَّهِيدِ

alssal¡mu `alayka y¡ shah¢du yabna alshshah¢di

Peace be upon you, O martyr, son of the martyr,

يَا اخَا ٱلشَّهيدِ يَا ابَا ٱلشُّهَدَاءِ

akha alshshah¢di y¡ ab¡ alshshuhad¡'i

brother of the martyr, and father of the martyrs.

اَللَّهُمَّ بَلِّغْهُ عَنِّي فِي هٰذِهِ ٱلسَّاعَةِ

all¡humma ballighhu `ann¢ f¢ h¡dhih¢ alss¡`ati

O Allah, (please do) convey to him on behalf of me at this hour,

وَفِي هٰذَا ٱلْيَوْمِ

wa f¢ h¡dh¡ alyawmi

on this day,

وَفِي هٰذَا ٱلْوَقْتِ

wa f¢ h¡dh¡ alwaqti

at this moment,

وَفِي كُلِّ وَقْتٍ

wa f¢ kulli waqtin

and at all time

تَحِيَّةً كَثيرَةً وَسَلاماً

tahiyyatan kath¢ratan wa sal¡man

abundant greetings and salutations.

سَلاَمُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيْكِ وَرَحْمَةُ ٱللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ

sal¡mu all¡hi `alayka wa rahmatu all¡hi wa barak¡tuh£

Peace, mercy, and blessings of Allah be upon you,

يَا بْنَ سَيِّدِ ٱلْعَالَمِينَ

yabna sayyidi al`¡lam¢na

O son of the master of the nations,

وَعَلَىٰ ٱلْمُسْتَشْهَدِينَ مَعَكَ سَلاَماً مُتَّصِلاً

wa `al¡ almustash-had¢na ma`aka sal¡man mutta¥ilan

and upon those whom were martyred with you by such incessant greetings

مَا ٱتَّصَلَ ٱللَّيْلُ وَٱلنَّهارُ

itta¥ala allaylu walnnah¡ru

that endure as long as there are day and night.

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَىٰ ٱلْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ ٱلشَّهِيدِ

alssal¡mu `al¡ alhusayni bni `aliyyin alshshah¢di

Peace be upon al-Husayn, the son of `Al¢, the martyr.

السَّلامُ عَلَىٰ عَلِيِّ بْنِ ٱلْحُسَيْنِ ٱلشَّهِيدِ

alssal¡mu `al¡ `aliyyi bni alhusayni alshshah¢di

Peace be upon `Al¢, the son of al-husayn, the martyr.

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَىٰ ٱلْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ امِيرِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ٱلشَّهِيدِ

alssal¡mu `al¡ al`abb¡si bni am¢ri almu'min¢na alshshah¢di

Peace be upon al-`Abbas, the son of the Commander of the Believers, the martyr.

السَّلاَمُ عَلَىٰ ٱلشُّهَداءِ مِنْ وُلْدِ امِيرِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

alssal¡mu `al¡ alshshuhad¡'i min wuldi am¢ri almu'min¢na

Peace be upon the martyrs from among the descendants of the Commander of the Believers.

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَىٰ ٱلشُّهَداءِ مِنْ وُلْدِ ٱلْحَسَنِ

alssal¡mu `al¡ alshshuhad¡'i min wuldi alhasani

Peace be upon the martyrs from among the descendants of al-hasan.

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَىٰ ٱلشُّهَداءِ مِنْ وُلْدِ ٱلْحُسَيْنِ

alssal¡mu `al¡ alshshuhad¡'i min wuldi alhusayni

Peace be upon the martyrs from among the descendants of al-husayn.

السَّلامُ عَلَىٰ ٱلشُّهَداءِ مِنْ وُلْدِ جَعْفَرٍ وَعَقِيلٍ

alssal¡mu `al¡ alshshuhad¡'i min wuldi ja`farin wa `aq¢lin

Peace be upon the martyrs from among the descendants of Ja`far and `Aqeel.

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ مُسْتَشْهَدٍ مَعَهُمْ مِنَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

alssal¡mu `al¡ kulli mustash-hadin ma`ahum min almu'min¢na

Peace be upon all the believers whom were martyred with them.

اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ

all¡humma ¥alli `al¡ muhammadin wa ¡li muhammadin

O Allah, (please do) send blessings to Muhammad and the Household of Muhammad

وَبَلِّغْهُمْ عَنِّي تَحِيَّةً كَثِيرَةً وَسَلاَماً

wa ballighhum `ann¢ tahiyyatan kath¢ratan wa sal¡man

and convey to them abundant greetings and salutations on behalf of me.

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يا رَسُولَ ٱللَّهِ

alssal¡mu `alayka y¡ ras£la all¡hi

Peace be upon you, O Allah’s Messenger!

احْسَنَ ٱللَّهُ لَكَ ٱلْعَزَاءَ فِي وَلَدِكَ ٱلْحُسَيْنِ

ahsana all¡hu laka al`az¡'a f¢ waladika alhusayni

May Allah confer upon you excellent consolation concerning the (tragedy) of al-Husayn, your son.

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكِ يَا فَاطِمَةُ

alssal¡mu `alayki y¡ f¡§imatu

Peace be upon you, O Fatimah!

احْسَنَ ٱللَّهُ لَكِ ٱلْعَزَاءَ فِي وَلَدِكَ ٱلْحُسَيْنِ

ahsana all¡hu laki al`az¡'a f¢ waladiki alhusayni

May Allah confer upon you excellent consolation concerning the (tragedy) of al-Husayn, your son.

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا امِيرَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

alssal¡mu `alayka y¡ am¢ra almu'min¢na

Peace be upon you, O Commander of the Believers!

احْسَنَ ٱللَّهُ لَكَ ٱلْعَزَاءَ فِي وَلَدِكَ ٱلْحُسَيْنِ

ahsana all¡hu laka al`az¡'a f¢ waladika alhusayni

May Allah confer upon you excellent consolation concerning the (tragedy) of al-husayn, your son.

اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابَا مُحَمَّدٍ ٱلْحَسَنُ

alssal¡mu `alayka y¡ ab¡ muhammadin alhasanu

Peace be upon you, Ab£-Muhammad al-hasan!

احْسَنَ ٱللَّهُ لَكَ ٱلْعَزَاءَ فِي اخِيكَ ٱلْحُسَيْنِ

ahsana all¡hu laka al`az¡'a f¢ akh¢ka alhusayni

May Allah confer upon you excellent consolation concerning the (tragedy) of al-husayn, your son.

يَا مَوْلاَيَ يَا ابَا عَبْدِ ٱللَّهِ

mawl¡ya y¡ ab¡ `abdill¡hi

O my master, Abu-`Abdulah!

انَا َضَيْفُ ٱللَّهِ َوضَيْفُكَ

ana ¤ayfu all¡hi wa ¤ayfuka

I am now Allah’s and your guest

وَجَارُ ٱللَّهِ وَجَارُكَ

wa j¡ru all¡hi wa j¡ruka

and Allah’s and your neighbor!

وَلِكُلِّ ضَيْفٍ وَجَارٍ قِرَىً

wa likulli ¤ayfin wa j¡rin qiran

Each guest and neighbor must receive hospitality!

وَقِرَايَ فِي هٰذَا ٱلْوَقْتِ

wa qir¡ya f¢ h¡dh¡ alwaqti

My hospitality at this time

انْ تَسْالَ ٱللَّهَ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ

an tas'ala all¡ha subh¡nahu wa ta`¡l¡

is that you may beseech Almighty Allah

انْ يَرْزُقَنِي فَكَاكَ رَقَبَتِي مِنَ ٱلنَّارِ

an yarzuqan¢ fak¡ka raqabat¢ min alnn¡ri

to release me from Hellfire.

إِنَّهُ سَمِيعُ ٱلدُّعَاءِ قَرِيبٌ مُجِيبٌ

innah£ sam¢`u alddu`¡'i qar¢bun muj¢bun

Verily, He is Hearer of prayers, Nigh, and Responsive.

The Twenty-Fifth of Muharram

Imam `Al¢ ibn al-husayn Zayn al-`ªbid¢n (`a) departed life on the twenty-fifth of Muharram, AH 94, or on the twelfth of Muharram AH 95, which was called the Year of Scholars.


 

CHAPTER EIGHT    SAFAR

Al-Muhaddith al-Fay¤ and other scholars have mentioned that if you desire to be saved from the misfortune and ill effects of the month of Safar, you may repeat the following  prayer ten times every day in this month:

يَا شَدِيدَ ٱلْقِوَىٰ

shad¢da alqiw¡

O Lord of mighty prowess!

وَيَا شَدِيدَ ٱلْمِحَالِ

wa y¡ shad¢da almih¡li

O Lord of mighty power!

يَا عَزِيزُ يَا عَزِيزُ يَا عَزِيزُ

`az¢zu y¡ `az¢zu y¡ `az¢zu

O Exalted in might! O Exalted in might! O Exalted in might!

ذَلَّتْ بِعَظَمَتِكَ جَمِيعُ خَلْقِكَ

dhallat bi`a¨amatika jam¢`u khalqika

Submissive to Your Almightiness are all of Your creatures;

فَاكْفِنِي شَرَّ خَلْقِكَ

fakfin¢ sharra khalqika

so, (please) save me from the evil of Your creatures.

يَا مُحْسِنُ يَا مُجْمِلُ

muhsinu y¡ mujmilu

O All-liberal! O All-bountiful!

يَا مُنْعِمُ يَا مُفْضِلُ

mun`imu y¡ muf¤ilu

O Source of all bounties! O Doer of favors!

يَا لاَ إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ انْتَ سُبْحَانَكَ

il¡ha ill¡ anta subh¡naka

O He save Whom there is no god! All glory be to You!

إِنِّي كُنْتُ مِنَ ٱلظَّالِمِينَ

inn¢ kuntu min al¨¨¡lim¢na

Verily, I have been a wrongdoer.

فَٱسْتَجَبْنَا لَهُ وَنَجّيْنَاهُ مِنَ ٱلْغَمِّ

fastajabn¡ lah£ wa najjayn¡hu min alghammi

So We heard his prayer and saved him from the anguish.

وَكَذلِكَ نُنْجِي ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

wa kadh¡lika nunj¢ almu'min¢na

Thus do We save the believers.

وَصَلَّىٰ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِهِ ٱلطَّيِّبِينَ ٱلطَّاهِرِينَ

wa ¥all¡ all¡hu `al¡ muhammadin wa ¡lih¢ al§§ayyib¢na al§§¡hir¢na

May Allah send blessings to Muhammad and his Household, the pure and immaculate.

As for Sayyid Ibn ±¡w£s, he has mentioned a   prayer that is said at the sight the new moon of Safar.

The First Day of Safar

On the first of Safar, AH 37, the battle of Siff¢n broke out. According to some narrations, on this day in AH 61, the head of Imam al-Husayn, the chief of martyrs, entered the city of Damascus, the capital of the Umayyad rulers, on spearheads after it had been carried to it from al-K£fah, Iraq. Therefore, the Umayyads betook that day as feast day. A poet says,

كَانَتْ مَآتِمُ بِالْعِرَاقِ، تَعُدُّهَا

While they were days of sadness in Iraq,

أَمَوِيَّةٌ بِالشَّامِ مِنْ أَعْيَادِهَا

The Umayyads betook them as feast days

In fact, on this day, the grievances of Imam al-husayn’s adherents should be aroused.

According to some narrations, on the first, or the third, of Safar, Zayd ibn `Al¢ ibn al-husayn was martyred.

The Third of Safar

Sayyid Ibn ±¡w£s writes down on the authority of the books of some Im¡miyyah scholars that it is recommended, on the third of Safar, to offer a two unit prayer at the first of which S£rah al-F¡tihah and S£rah al-Fath (No. 48) should be recited and at the second, S£rah al-F¡tihah and S£rah al-Tawh¢d should be recited. After accomplishment, invocation of blessings upon the Holy Prophet and his Household, invocation of curse upon the Umayyad, and imploration for forgiveness repeated one hundred times each. After all that, one may pray for granting his needs. The invocation of curse upon the Umayyads should be in the following form:

O Allah, curse the family of Ab£-Sufy¡n.

all¡humma il`an ¡la ab¢ sufy¡na

اَللَّهُمَّ ٱلْعَنْ آلَ ابِي سُفْيَانَ

The Seventh of Safar

According to the opinions of al-Shah¢d and al-Kaf`am¢, Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtab¡ (`a) was martyred on the seventh of Safar, AH 50. As for the two Shaykhs, Imam al-hasan (`a) was martyred on the twenty-eighth of Safar.

On the seventh of Safar, AH 128, Imam M£s¡ ibn Ja`far al-K¡¨im (`a) was born at al-Abw¡’—a place between Makkah and al-Mad¢nah.


 

The twentieth of Safar; the Arba`een (fortieth Day)

In the word of the two Shaykhs, on the twenties of Safar, the harem of Imam al-Husayn (`a) arrived in al-Mad¢nah returning from Syria. On this day too, J¡bir ibn `Abdull¡h al-An¥¡r¢, the first to visit the tomb of Imam al-Husayn (`a), arrived there. It is recommended to visit the holy tomb of Imam al-husayn (`a) on this day. Concerning this, Imam al-hasan al-`Askar¢ (`a) is reported to have said:

“The signs of a true believer are five: (1) offering a fifty-one units of daily obligatory and supererogatory prayers, (2) visiting the tomb of Imam al-husayn on the twentieth of Safar (i.e. Ziy¡rat al-Arba`¢n), (3) putting a ring in the right hand, (4) covering one’s forehead with dust (i.e. prostrating oneself to Almighty Allah earnestly), and (5) repeating the Basmalah (Bismil-l¡hir-rahm¡nir-rah¢m: In the Name of Allah, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful) audibly in certain prayers.

In Tahdh¢b al-Ahk¡m and al-Mi¥b¡h, Shaykh al-±£s¢ has mentioned a form of Ziy¡rah that is dedicated to this day. Later in the book, this form will be cited.

The Twenty-Eighth of Safar

On the twenty-eight of Safar, AH 11, the Holy Prophet Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets, departed life. As is unanimously agreed, it was Monday. The Holy Prophet (¥) was sixty-three years old when he departed life. At the age of forty, he was commissioned, by Almighty Allah, to convey the Divine Mission; and Archangel Gabriel began conveying to him the commandments of Almighty Allah and the Divine Revelation. At Makkah, he invited people to follow the religion of monotheism for thirteen years. He then immigrated to al-Mad¢nah at the age of fifty-three. He departed life in the tenth year after his immigration (Hegira). Hence, Imam `Al¢ Am¢r al-Mu'min¢n (`a) did the funeral rituals and then offered the ritual Prayer of the Dead for his soul. The companions, in groups, then would come near him to offer prayers individually without having any im¡m to lead them in prayer. Imam `Al¢ (`a) buried him in the holy room where he—may Allah send peace and blessings upon him and his Household—departed life.

It has been narrated that Anas ibn M¡lik said, “As soon as we accomplished the ceremonies of burying the Holy Prophet (¥), Lady F¡§imah (`a) came to me and said, ‘How could you be bold enough to pile up soil on the face of the Messenger of Allah?’ She then wept and shouted, ‘Oh for my father whose prayers were responded by the Lord! Oh for my father; how nigh he is from his Lord!’…etc.”

According to a considerable narration, Lady F¡§imah al-Zahr¡' (`a) took a handful of the soil of the Holy Prophet’s tomb, put it between her eyes, and said,

مَاذَا عَلَىٰ الْمُشْتَمِّ تُرْبَةَ أَحْمَدٍ

Indeed! If one who smells the soil of Ahmad’s tomb

اَنْ لاَ يَشَمَّ مَدَىٰ الزَّمَانِ غَوَالِيَا

Shall never smell any perfume any more!

صُبَّتْ عَليَّ مَصَائِبٌ لَوْ اَنَّهَا

If the misfortunes that have been poured on me

صُبَّتْ عَلَىٰ الاَيَّامِ صِرْنَ لَيَالِيَا

Were poured on days, they should turn to black nights!

In his book of al-Durr al-Na¨¢m, Shaykh Y£suf al-Sh¡m¢ has mentioned that Lady F¡§imah al-Zahr¡' (`a) composed the following verses, elegizing her father (¥):

قُلْ لِلْمُغيَّبِ تَحْتَ أَثْوَابِ الثَّرَىٰ

Tell him who is concealed under the layers of soil:

إِنْ كُنْتَ تَسْمَعُ صَرْخَتِي وَنِدَائِيَا

If you can hear my scream and my call

صُبَّتْ عَلَيَّ مَصَائِبٌ لَوْ اَنَّهَا

If the misfortunes that have been poured on me

صُبَّتْ عَلَىٰ الاَيَّامِ صِرْنَ لَيَالِيَا

Were poured on days, they should turn to black nights!

قَدْ كُنْتُ ذَاتَ حِمىً بِظِلِّ مُحَمَّدٍ

Under the shadow of Muhammad, I used to be sheltered

لاَ أَخْشَ مِنْ ضَيْمٍ وَكَانَ حِمَىٰ لِيَا

I did not anticipate any grievance since he was my haven

فَالْيَوْمَ اَخْضَعُ للِْذَّلِيلِ وَاَتَّقِي

But today I am made subservient to the lowly, suffering grievances,

ضَيْمِي وَاَدْفَعُ ظَالِمِي بِرِدَائِيَا

And I have to ward off the wrongdoer with my dress

فَإِذَا بَكَتْ قُمْرِيَّةٌ فِي لَيْلِهَا

If a turtledove weeps on a branch in eves

شَجَناً عَلَىٰ غُصْنٍ بَكَيْتُ صَبَاحِيَا

Out of grief, I will weep in morns

فَلاَجْعَلَنَّ الْحُزْنَ بَعْدَكَ مُؤْنِسِي

I shall betake grief, after you, as my entertainment

وَلاَجْعَلَنَّ الدَّمْعَ فِيكَ وِشَاحِيَا

And I shall betake shedding tears, for you, as my sash

The Last Day of Safar

According to the narration of al-±abirs¢ and Ibn al-Ath¢r, Imam `Al¢ ibn M£s¡ al-Ri¤¡ (`a) was martyred on the last day of Safar, AH 203, because of poison that was mixed with grapes and offered to him. He was fifty-five years old when he departed life. His tomb was at the house of ham¢d ibn Qah§abah in the village of San¡b¡d in the city of ±£s. In the same house, H¡r£n, the `Abb¡sid ruler, was buried, too.


 

([1]) T¡s£`¡’ means the ninth, but it has been restricted to the ninth of Muharram. Similarly, although the word `ªsh£r¡’ means the tenth, it has been restricted to the tenth of Muharram.

([2]) This is an indication of the famous story of Prophet Moses with al-Kha¤ir that is mentioned in the Holy Qur'¡n, S£rah al-Kahf No. 18, Verses 60-82.

([3]) The author of Shif¡’ al-Sud£r is Ayatollah M¢rz¡ Abu’l-Fa¤l al-±ahr¡n¢.

([4]) All these are fabrications that were invented by the Umayyads and their fans in order to cover their crime of slaying Imam al-husayn (`a) and in order to make people forget this astounding event.

([5]) Na¥ib¢s (or Naw¡¥ib) are those who openly declare enmity towards the Ahl al-Bayt and their adherents. Addressing to the Sh¢`ah, Im¡m al-S¡diq defines a N¡¥ib¢ as the one who shows enmity to the followers of the Holy Imams.